Physiology of cramp
Muscles, when used, contract and relax. Muscles are mainly used to facilitate movement or maintain posture. When a muscle contracts involuntarily and for a sustained period we get a cramp. A muscle in a cramp causes pain and stiffening of the joints associated with the muscle. Muscle cramps can involve multiple muscles that are adjacent to each other or can involve only part of the muscle.
Possible causes of cramps include:
Dehydration- lack of fluid in the body
Liver dysfunction- liver diseases, excessive alcohol consumption
Medications- such as statins, diuretics etc.
Nerve compression- Mainly in the lumbar spine causing cramping in the legs especially after walking for a period of time
Lack of minerals/vitamins- common ones are lack of – potassium, calcium, magnesium and vitamin B1 etc.